The fauna of Santa Maria needs to be looked at in two different parts; the terrestrial fauna and the marine fauna.
The terrestrial fauna of the resort is mainly represented by birds of beautiful plumage and singing, such as parakeets, parrots, the "Rosacoli" and the "negrito" a singing bird of the region. The local bird fauna is also enriched by the close location of Cayo Sabinal, principal colony of pink flamencos of the Caribeeans. Also present are seagulls and pelicans.
The marine fauna of Santa Lucia, with the second world largest coral barrier, is home of a large variety of marine species. Over 500 different species of tropical fish such as manatees (aquatic mammal threatened by extinction), oysters, cobos, octopus, hawksbill turtles, lobsters, crabs, mollusks and fish for greater fishing such as red snapper, tuna and the rabirrubia can also be found.